Several Christian ministries promote the idea that the earth is less than 10, years old, which they say comes from the Bible. In reality, the Bible makes no claim as to the age of the earth, although it does establish a minimum age. This page examines some of the history of the controversy—what the Bible actually says and does not say—and the scientific evidence surrounding the age of the earth. Age of the earth according to the Bible The following is a summary of the biblical evidence presented on this website regarding the age of the earth. For more detailed explanations of each topic, please click on the associated link. History of the age of the earth As indicated earlier, the Bible does not fix the age of the earth, contrary to the claims of Answers in Genesis. Archbishop Ussher took the genealogies of Genesis, assuming they were complete, and calculated all the years to arrive at a date for the creation of the earth on Sunday, October 23, B. There are a number of other assumptions implicit in the calculation. The first, and foremost, assumption is that the genealogies of Genesis are complete, from father to son throughout the entire course of human existence. The second assumption is that the Genesis creation “days” were exactly hours in length.
Age of the earth
USGS Paleontology glossary Acritarch microscopic organic structure from any of a number of organisms; common during the Proterozoic. Adaptive radiation, evolutionary radiation the rapid expansion and diversification of a group of organisms as they fill unoccupied ecological niches , evolving into new species. Age of Mammals term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Cenozoic era, beginning with the Paleocene Epoch when following the K—T end Cretaceous mass extinction , mammals underwent a huge evolutionary radiation and thus replaced reptiles as the dominant life on Earth.
The Age of Mammals has in turn been replaced by the Anthropocene or Age of Man, Holocene when humans dominate every conceivable environment and most other life forms apart from weedy species are suffering a mass extinction Yes, I know humans are also mammals, so technically speaking this is still the Age of Mammals, but I tend to think of the Age of Mammals as a period of flourishing biodiversity. MAK Age of Reptiles term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Permian through to Cretaceous periods but obviously originating with Victorian discoveries of “antediluvian monsters” , when reptiles first mammal-like reptiles , then archosaurs and marine reptiles were the dominant life on Earth.
Paleontologist Edwin Colbert wrote a popular intelligent layperson book with the same title.
How radiometric dating works in general: Radioactive elements decay gradually into other elements. The original element is called the parent, and the result of the decay process is .
The sun, moon, and stars 2. The fish and the birds 3. The fertile earth 6. The land animals and humans 7. Rest and satisfaction In light of these correspondences, Kline interprets days one and four as different perspectives on the same event, and likewise days two and five, and three and six. He concludes that while the creation account is historical, historicity and narrative sequence are not the same thing, so the account need not—indeed, should not—be read as chronological at all.
And, of course, this nicely addresses Origen’s observation that days one, two and three could not be literal days before the sun, moon and stars existed to mark them and it also obviates the anachronistic modern question, relevant to all six days if they are literal, of the time zone by which God measured his evenings and mornings Garden of Eden Standard Time? Of course, Kline’s interpretation can be disputed.
For instance, Collins , while recognizing the validity of the parallel structure in the days of creation and appreciating the implication that the precise lengths of time involved and the precise historical ordering of events was not the author’s focus and is not a matter of deep biblical importance, nonetheless resists Kline’s effort to condense the divine “workweek” into three days told from two different perspectives rather than six. The fourth commandment in Exodus Furthermore, use of the Hebrew wayyiqtol verb form is prevalent in Genesis 1 and, since its ordinary narrative use is to indicate sequential events Collins , the implication seems to be that some sort of sequence—whether logico-metaphysical, teleological, or chronological—is intrinsic to the author’s portrayal.
Adopting this viewpoint, however, leaves Collins with the problem of interpreting how the fourth day of creation fits into this sequence. He resolves it by noting that when God says “Let there be yehi lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. This interpretation is further bolstered by the fact that verse 14 is focused on the function of these lights rather than their origin, lending credence to Collins’ argument that Genesis 1:
Age of the Earth
Methods of Dating the Age of Meteorites Meteorites are among the oldest objects we know about – formed about 4. But how do scientists know this? This article describes the principles and methods used to make that determination.
Inhoud. Inleiding. Wetenskapsfilosofie. Beperkinge van dateringsmetodes. Die probleem van ekstrapolasie. Probleme met huidige geologiese teorieë. Wetenskaplike getuienis vir ‘n vloed-gebeure.
These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral.
He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages. Evernden and others 43 found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried. As a result, glauconite is used for dating only with extreme caution.
The ages from the Coast Range batholith in Alaska Table 2 are referenced by Woodmorappe to a report by Lanphere and others Whereas Lanphere and his colleagues referred to these two K-Ar ages of and million years, the ages are actually from another report and were obtained from samples collected at two localities in Canada, not Alaska.
How Old is the Earth
Inteendeel, meeste sillabusse in skole en universiteite aanvaar die konsep van evolusie as die wetenskaplike basis vir die verstaan van die fisiese kosmos soos ons dit vandag ken. A gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form. See Synonyms at development. The process of developing.
The rubidium–strontium pair is ideally suited for the isochron dating of igneous rocks. As a liquid rock cools, first one mineral and then another achieves saturation and precipitates, each extracting specific elements in the process.
This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point: Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint. A full discussion of the topic must therefore include the current scientific challenge to the OE concept.
This challenge is mainly headed by Creationism which teaches a young-earth YE theory. A young earth is considered to be typically just 6, years old since this fits the creation account and some dating deductions from Genesis. The crucial point here is: Accepted Dating Methods Here we outline some dating methods , both absolute and relative, that are widely accepted and used by the scientific community.
Problems with the U-Pb Radioisotope Dating Methods—1. Common Pb
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
RADIOMETRIC DATING. he question of the ages of the Earth and its rock formations and features has fascinated philosophers, theologians, and scientists for centuries, primarily because the answers put our lives in temporal perspective.
His calculations did not account for heat produced via radioactive decay a process then unknown to science or, more significantly, convection inside the Earth, which allows more heat to escape from the interior to warm rocks near the surface. For biologists, even million years seemed much too short to be plausible. In Darwin’s theory of evolution , the process of random heritable variation with cumulative selection requires great durations of time. According to modern biology, the total evolutionary history from the beginning of life to today has taken place since 3.
Huxley , attacked Thomson’s calculations, suggesting they appeared precise in themselves but were based on faulty assumptions. The physicist Hermann von Helmholtz in and astronomer Simon Newcomb in contributed their own calculations of 22 and 18 million years respectively to the debate: However, they assumed that the Sun was only glowing from the heat of its gravitational contraction. The process of solar nuclear fusion was not yet known to science.
In John Perry challenged Kelvin’s figure on the basis of his assumptions on conductivity, and Oliver Heaviside entered the dialogue, considering it “a vehicle to display the ability of his operator method to solve problems of astonishing complexity. Charles Darwin ‘s son, the astronomer George H. Darwin , proposed that Earth and Moon had broken apart in their early days when they were both molten. He calculated the amount of time it would have taken for tidal friction to give Earth its current hour day.
How Old is the Earth
Reference to a case where the given method did not work This is perhaps the most common objection of all. Creationists point to instances where a given method produced a result that is clearly wrong, and then argue that therefore all such dates may be ignored. Such an argument fails on two counts:
The age of the earth can be measured by numerous different techniques, most of which provide just a minimum age. The absolute age of the earth has been most accurately measured through radioactive decay of its rocks.
Outlook Other Abstract U-Pb radioisotope dating is now the absolute dating method of first choice among geochronologists, especially using the mineral zircon. A variety of analytical instruments have also now been developed using different micro-sampling techniques coupled with mass spectrometers, thus enabling wide usage of U-Pb radioisotope dating. However, problems remain in the interpretation of the measured Pb isotopic ratios to transform them into ages. Among them is the presence of non-radiogenic Pb of unknown composition, often referred to as common or initial Pb.
There is also primordial Pb that the earth acquired when it formed, its isotopic composition determined as that of troilite in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite. Subsequently new crustal rocks formed via partial melts from the mantle. So the Pb isotope ratios measured in these rocks today must be interpreted before their U-Pb ages can be calculated.