History Galton whistle, one of the first devices to produce ultrasound Acoustics , the science of sound , starts as far back as Pythagoras in the 6th century BC, who wrote on the mathematical properties of stringed instruments. Echolocation in bats was discovered by Lazzaro Spallanzani in , when he demonstrated that bats hunted and navigated by inaudible sound and not vision. Francis Galton in invented the Galton whistle , an adjustable whistle which produced ultrasound, which he used to measure the hearing range of humans and other animals, demonstrating that many animals could hear sounds above the hearing range of humans. The first technological application of ultrasound was an attempt to detect submarines by Paul Langevin in The piezoelectric effect , discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in , was useful in transducers to generate and detect ultrasonic waves in air and water. The Mosquito is an electronic device that uses a high pitched frequency to deter loitering by young people. Animals Bats use ultrasounds to navigate in the darkness. A dog whistle , a whistle which emits sound in the ultrasonic range, used to train dogs and other animals Bats use a variety of ultrasonic ranging echolocation techniques to detect their prey. This includes many groups of moths , beetles , praying mantids and lacewings.

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Imitation Imitation is an advanced behaviour whereby an animal observes and exactly replicates the behaviour of another. The National Institutes of Health reported that capuchin monkeys preferred the company of researchers who imitated them to that of researchers who did not. The monkeys not only spent more time with their imitators but also preferred to engage in a simple task with them even when provided with the option of performing the same task with a non-imitator.

One of these is stimulus enhancement in which individuals become interested in an object as the result of observing others interacting with the object. Haggerty devised an experiment in which a monkey climbed up the side of a cage, placed its arm into a wooden chute, and pulled a rope in the chute to release food.

A valued French tapestry dating back to the beginning of the 20th century in high definition. Explore.

General considerations Basic concepts Interest in how information is communicated and how its carriers convey meaning has occupied, since the time of pre-Socratic philosophers, the field of inquiry called semiotics , the study of signs and sign phenomena. Signs are the irreducible elements of communication and the carriers of meaning. The American philosopher, mathematician, and physicist Charles S.

Peirce is credited with having pointed out the three dimensions of signs, which are concerned with, respectively, the body or medium of the sign, the object that the sign designates, and the interpretant or interpretation of the sign. Peirce recognized that the fundamental relations of information are essentially triadic; in contrast, all relations of the physical sciences are reducible to dyadic binary relations. Another American philosopher, Charles W. Morris , designated these three sign dimensions syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic , the names by which they are known today.

Information processes are executed by information processors. For a given information processor, whether physical or biological, a token is an object, devoid of meaning, that the processor recognizes as being totally different from other tokens. Objects that carry meaning are represented by patterns of tokens called symbols. The latter combine to form symbolic expressions that constitute inputs to or outputs from information processes and are stored in the processor memory.

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History Galton whistle, one of the first devices to produce ultrasound Acoustics , the science of sound , starts as far back as Pythagoras in the 6th century BC, who wrote on the mathematical properties of stringed instruments. Echolocation in bats was discovered by Lazzaro Spallanzani in , when he demonstrated that bats hunted and navigated by inaudible sound, not vision.

Francis Galton in invented the Galton whistle , an adjustable whistle that produced ultrasound, which he used to measure the hearing range of humans and other animals, demonstrating that many animals could hear sounds above the hearing range of humans. The first technological application of ultrasound was an attempt to detect submarines by Paul Langevin in

Digital definition, displaying a readout in numerical digits rather than by a pointer or hands on a dial: a digital speedometer; a digital watch. See more.

An excellent opportunity to collect high quality photographic prints and support this website. Sharpening Sharpening increases image contrast at boundaries. This enhances perceived sharpness and detail, although it doesn’t increase actual information content. Sharpening can be overdone: But the right amount definitely enhances an image. Although sharpening can be performed during the scan or in the digital camera, it is usually best done late in the image editing process.

A simple sharpening algorithm subtracts a fraction of two neighboring pixels from each pixel, as illustrated on the right. The thin black curve is the input to the sharpening algorithm: The thin red curve the impulse response that results from sharpening— the sum of the black curve and the two blue curves, normalized to the same amplitude as the input. The thick black and red curves shifted up and left are the corresponding edge responses before and after sharpening.

Ksharp is the sharpening constant related to the slider setting scanning or editing program. V is the shift used for sharpening. The sharpening algorithm has its own MTF.

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Local apples were used for pie. Baking powder came in different strengths single, double acting. Did you know some culinary historians say we Americans measure with objects as opposed to weight because of our pioneer heritage?

Microwave ovens (aka radar cooking) Like fire, the microwave oven cookery was discovered by accident. Follow the fascinating journey from science lab to American home kitchens.

Burk We no longer feel the social pressure to confine sex to committed relationships. Sex is now an accepted recreational activity. We may have overcome our fear and shame about sex, but many of us still have issues regarding intimacy. If we experience more intimacy than we can handle, we will feel threatened; our safety checklist will be triggered. When we experience an orgasm, we reveal ourselves more completely and more honestly than at any other time.

We let our egos die for a moment, and we have the chance to experience a true connection with another person. We still equate sex with love, and love with commitment. And we equate love and commitment with vulnerability, responsibility, and the fear that our needs will not be met.

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Comprehensive review of annually laminated varved lake sediments. Abstract Downcore counting of laminations in varved sediments offers a direct and incremental dating technique for high-resolution climatic and environmental archives with at least annual and sometimes even seasonal resolution. The pioneering definition of varves by De Geer had been restricted to rhythmically deposited proglacial clays.

Subsequent to deposition of topmost laminae, the physical preservation of the accumulating varved sequence requires the sustained absence of sediment mixing, for example via wave action or macrobenthic bioturbation.

Internet Marketing and SEO. Online marketing is an efficient channel to reach a large market. Prior to the 90’s, services used conventional channels such as print media, transmitted media, direct-mail advertisings and telemarketing to reach their audiences.

White papers and e-books: That type of e-book and a white paper can be hard to tell apart. A B2B e-book can be just about any length on just about any topic. Many e-books look more like slide decks than text-driven documents. In fact, some say e-books are just prettied-up white papers turned on their sides. In any case, here are some scenarios when an e-book might work better than a white paper: Your audience is prone to distraction They may be young, or on the road.

An e-book may sound like more fun than a white paper that sounds like a lot of work. The goal is the same. An ideal e-book—just like an ideal white paper—will help your target audience understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision. If your content does that, you can call it an e-book, a white paper, or whatever… and your audience will still thank you for it.

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Imitation Imitation is an advanced behaviour whereby an animal observes and exactly replicates the behaviour of another. The National Institutes of Health reported that capuchin monkeys preferred the company of researchers who imitated them to that of researchers who did not. The monkeys not only spent more time with their imitators but also preferred to engage in a simple task with them even when provided with the option of performing the same task with a non-imitator.

One of these is stimulus enhancement in which individuals become interested in an object as the result of observing others interacting with the object.

Ultrasound is defined by the American National Standards Institute as “sound at frequencies greater than 20 kHz”. In air at atmospheric pressure, ultrasonic waves have wavelengths of cm or less.. Perception Humans. The upper frequency limit in humans (approximately 20 kHz) is due to limitations of the middle ear. Auditory sensation can occur if high‐intensity ultrasound is fed directly.

CAS teichoic acid Any of the polymers found in the cell walls of some gram-positive bacteria, such as the staphylococci. It is used to decrease bleeding time during surgical procedures. Loss of blood is decreased when this drug is used. CAS trans-fatty acid The solid fat produced by heating liquid vegetable oils in the presence of hydrogen and certain metal catalysts.

Partial hydrogenation changes some of the unsaturated bonds to saturated ones. The more trans-fatty acids in the diet, the higher the serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

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